Incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis at two large medical centers.
Radiology. 2008 Sep;248(3):807-16
Authors: Prince MR, Zhang H, Morris M, MacGregor JL, Grossman ME, Silberzweig J, DeLapaz RL, Lee HJ, Magro CM, Valeri AM
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and associated risk factors of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients who undergo gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained for retrospective review of the medical records from two hospitals to identify all cases of biopsy-confirmed NSF and all patients administered a GBCA from January 1, 1997, to June 30, 2007. Informed patient consent was not required. The incidence of NSF was calculated for patients who received a standard dose of GBCA, patients who received a high dose, and subgroups of patients with renal impairment. RESULTS: Fifteen patients developed NSF after gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. All of them had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) lower than 30 mL/min, and 11 had acute renal failure or acute deterioration of chronic renal failure. The incidence of NSF after gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging without screening for renal function was zero of 74,124 patients with the standard dose of GBCA and 15 (0.17%) of 8997 patients with the high dose (P < .001). The NSF incidence associated with a high dose of GBCA increased to 0.4% in patients in a chronic hemodialysis program and to 8.8% in those who had an eGFR lower than 15 mL/min but were not undergoing hemodialysis (P < .001). The NSF incidence in the patients with acute renal failure who received a high dose when their creatinine level was increasing was 19% (11 of 58 patients) when hemodialysis was delayed for longer than 2 days. More patients with NSF had proinflammatory events, and compared with patients without NSF, these patients had lower pH, younger age, lower eGFR, elevated serum phosphorus levels, and a longer delay between GBCA injection and hemodialysis. CONCLUSION: For patients with an eGFR lower than 15 mL/min, hemodialysis helped to prevent NSF. For patients with an eGFR lower than 30 mL/min who received a high dose of GBCA, acute renal failure, delayed hemodialysis after contrast agent injection, proinflammatory events, and hyperphosphatemia were associated with increased risk of NSF.
PMID: 18710976 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]