The difficult airway.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2008 Jun;41(3):567-80, ix
Authors: Liess BD, Scheidt TD, Templer JW
Securing the airway in a dyspneic patient is a challenging task because of the myriad causes and presentations. Initial assessment may demonstrate factors indicative of upper airway abnormalities; however, they may not be specific nor sensitive enough to accurately predict difficult intubation. A well-equipped airway cart must be immediately available. A standardized escalating approach to secure the airway in a difficult situation begins with a rapid sequence of attempts at standard intubation, followed by attempted tube introduction over a bougie or using a flexible endoscope or laryngeal mask, and finally surgical interventions including cricothyrotomy or tracheotomy.
PMID: 18435999 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]