Heterogeneity of large clostridial toxins: importance of Clostridium difficile toxinotypes.
FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008 May;32(3):541-55
Authors: Rupnik M
Clostridium difficile toxinotypes are groups of strains defined by changes in the PaLoc region encoding two main virulence factors: toxins TcdA and TcdB. Currently, 24 variant toxinotypes (I-XXIV) are known, in addition to toxinotype 0 strains, which contain a PaLoc identical to the reference strain VPI 10463. Variant toxinotypes can also differ from toxinotype 0 strains in their toxin production pattern. The most-studied variant strains are TcdA-, TcdB+ (A-B+) strains and binary toxin CDT-producing strains. Variations in toxin genes are also conserved on the protein level and variant toxins can differ in size, antibody reactivity, pattern of intracellular targets (small GTPases) and consequently in their effects on the cell. Toxinotypes do not correlate with particular forms of disease or patient populations, but some toxinotypes (IIIb and VIII) are currently associated with disease of increased severity and outbreaks worldwide. Variant toxinotypes are very common in animal hosts and can represent from 40% to 100% of all isolates. Among human isolates, variant toxinotypes usually represent up to 10% of strains but their prevalence is increasing.
PMID: 18397287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]