Initial management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: from initial evaluation up to gastrointestinal endoscopy.
Med Clin North Am. 2008 May;92(3):491-509, xi
Authors: Cappell MS, Friedel D
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a relatively common, potentially life-threatening medical emergency responsible for more than 300,000 hospital admissions and about 30,000 deaths per annum in America. The initial assessment focuses on bleeding activity, bleeding severity, hemodynamic compromise from the bleeding, and differentiating upper from lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The initial supportive therapy includes fluid resuscitation to reverse the hypovolemia, blood transfusions to replete the lost blood, respiratory support as necessary, and proton pump inhibitor therapy to stabilize mucosal blood clots and promote hemostasis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is the best test to determine the bleeding site and cause.
PMID: 18387374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]