Assessment and treatment of diabetic foot ulcer.
Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;61(11):1931-8
Authors: Fard AS, Esmaelzadeh M, Larijani B
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Foot ulcers are one of the main complications in diabetes mellitus, with a 15% lifetime risk in all diabetic patients. The rate of lower extremity amputation among diabetic patients is 17-40 times higher than in non-diabetics. A critical triad of neuropathy, minor foot trauma and foot deformity was found in > 63% of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) has been identified in 30% of foot ulcers. We present a comprehensive assessment and the treatment of DFUs. We also want to notify physicians not to ignore foot assessment and examinations in patients with diabetes. METHODS: We conducted this study on DFU on the basis of: pathogenesis and risk factors, assessment and physical examination, paraclinic assessment, treatment, cost and mortality and prevention. RESULTS AND FINDINGS: Approximately 20% of hospital admissions among diabetic patients are the result of foot problems. Diabetic foot assessment should include dermatological, vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal systems. There are three basic treatments for management of DFU: (i) debridement; (ii) antibiotics and (iii) revascularization. The cost to treat one simple ulcer is $5000 to $8000. CONCLUSION: Awareness of physicians about foot problems in diabetic patients, clinical examination and paraclinical assessment, regular foot examination, patient education, simple hygienic practices and provision of appropriate footwear combined with prompt treatment of minor injuries can decrease ulcer occurrence by 50%.
PMID: 17935551 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]