New advances in acute pancreatitis.

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New advances in acute pancreatitis.

Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007 Sep;23(5):494-501

Authors: DiMagno MJ, DiMagno EP

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We endeavor to review important new advances in acute pancreatitis made in the past year. We focused on clinical aspects of acute pancreatitis, which contained new observations or insights into new or old concepts. For experimental acute pancreatitis we refer readers to a recent comprehensive review. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, case fatality rates of acute pancreatitis have stabilized; carbohydrate-deficient transferrin was shown to predict alcoholic acute pancreatitis; idiopathic chronic pancreatitis or occult cholelithiasis have been associated with 'recurrent acute pancreatitis' in most patients; and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genetic mutations were frequently found (10-50%) in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. In addition, alcohol was shown to increase the risk of pancreatic necrosis regardless of the cause of acute pancreatitis. Persistent organ failure and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome but not necessarily extent of necrosis were demonstrated to predict increased mortality in acute pancreatitis. Chemoprevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography acute pancreatitis remains unproven. Enteral feeding has been strongly recommended in severe acute pancreatitis. Finally, data are lacking for routine, prophylactic antibiotic administration to all patients with pancreatic necrosis. SUMMARY: We reviewed studies this past year that further characterize the epidemiology, etiology and risk stratification of acute pancreatitis. Evolving areas include chemoprevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography acute pancreatitis and enteral feeding and antibiotics in severe acute pancreatitis. We await translation of novel therapies from the bench to bedside.

PMID: 17762554 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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