Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Jan;5(1):114-22
Authors: Belverud S, Mogilner A, Schulder M
Direct neuroaxis drug delivery has expanded the physician's armamentarium to provide treatment options to those who have failed more conservative interventions. Starting from Bier's 'cocainization of the spinal cord' in 1898, direct nervous system pharmacy delivery has long been recognized as an effective means to treat pain. Intrathecal pump systems are now commonplace in the management of numerous pain states, as well as of neuromuscular sequelae of central nervous system injury. There has been much advancement in the physiologic and pharmacologic understanding of direct neuromodulation, providing a growing number of treatment options depending on the specific disease state. As well, surgical techniques and catheter systems have undergone refinements providing improved long-term safety and efficacy. We present a review of the historical evolution to current intrathecal therapies, as well as a dialog regarding patient selection, drug options, and side effects. Also, included is a discussion of surgical techniques, current delivery options and complications concerning pump placement.
PMID: 18164490 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]