Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion: French clinical practice guidelines.
Diabetes Metab. 2007 Sep;33(4):303-9
Authors: Halimi JM, Hadjadj S, Aboyans V, Allaert FA, Artigou JY, Beaufils M, Berrut G, Fauvel JP, Gin H, Nitenberg A, Renversez JC, Rusch E, Valensi P, Cordonnier D
Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) may be assayed on a morning urinary sample or a 24 h-urine sample. Values defining microalbuminuria are: 1) 24-h urine sample: 30-300 mg/24 h; 2) morning urine sample: 20-200 mg/ml or 30-300 mg/g creatinine or 2.5-25 mg/mmol creatinine (men) or 3.5-35 mg/mmol (women); 3) timed urine sample: 20-200 mug/min. The optimal use of semi-quantitative urine test-strip is not clearly defined. It is generally believed that microalbuminuria reflects a generalized impairment of the endothelium; however, no definite proof has been obtained in humans. IN DIABETIC SUBJECTS: Microalbuminuria is a marker of increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) and renal morbidity and mortality in type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects. The increase in UAE during follow-up is associated with greater CV and renal risks in type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects; its decrease during follow-up is associated with lower risks. IN NON-DIABETIC SUBJECTS: Microalbuminuria is a marker of increased risk for diabetes mellitus, deterioration of renal function, CV morbidity and all-cause mortality. It is a marker of increased risk for the development of hypertension in normotensive subjects, and is associated with unfavorable outcome in patients with cancer and lymphoma. Persistence of elevated UAE during follow-up is associated with poor outcome in some hypertensive subjects. Measurement of UAE may be recommended in hypertensive medium-risk subjects with 1 or 2 CV risk factors in whom CV risk remains difficult to assess, and in those with refractory hypertension: microalbuminuria indicates a high CV risk and must lead to strict control of arterial pressure. Studies focused on microalbuminuria in non-diabetic non-hypertensive subjects are limited; most of them suggest that microalbuminuria predicts CV complications and deleterious outcome. Subjects with a history of CV or cerebrovascular disease have an even greater CV risk if microalbuminuria is present than if it is not; however, in all cases, therapeutic intervention must be aggressive regardless of whether microalbuminuria is present or not. It is not recommended to measure UAE in non-diabetic non-hypertensive subjects in the absence of history of renal disease. Monitoring of renal function (UAE, serum creatinine and estimation of GFR) is recommended annually in all subjects with microalbuminuria. MANAGEMENT: In patients with microalbuminuria, weight reduction, sodium restriction (<6 g per day), smoking cessation, strict glucose control in diabetic subjects, strict arterial pressure control are necessary; in diabetic subjects: use of maximal doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are recommended; ACEI/ARB and thiazides have synergistic actions on arterial pressure and reduction of UAE; in non-diabetic subjects, any of the five classes of anti-hypertensive medications (ACEI, ARB, thiazides, calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers) can be used.
PMID: 17702622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]